The role of coal in South Africa’s economy is a particular challenge. Coal is under pressure in ways that over time will impact negatively on South Africa’s coal mining value chain and coal exports. With climate change becoming a significant factor in global and domestic policy, it is becoming harder to receive financing for coal-fired power plants from development finance institutions, and investors are shifting away from fossil fuels albeit at a snail’s pace. At the same time as we need the mining jobs and outputs, mining comes at a social price. All these drivers to shift away from coal mining in time mean South Africa has to think strategically about mining jobs, ensure workers can enter other jobs and have a social protection safety net.